Universal motor and its operation

A true direct current (DC) electric motor does not accept AC power, because this power inverts the current sense every half cycle, and that would only cause the shaking. Likewise, a true AC motor does not accept DC power, as this supply will not offer the appropriate changes in the current direction for the correct operation of the motor.

However, if we replace the permanent magnets of the stators of the DC motors with electromagnets and connect (in series) these electromagnets in the same circuit of the rotor and commutator, we will have a universal motor. If the DC motor is supplied with DC power, it will not reverse its direction of rotation. If you reverse the polarity of the source it will continue to rotate always in the same direction, working properly.

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A more powerful universal electric motor can be obtained if modifications are made to your design.

Universal motors are widely used in electric mixers, vacuum cleaners and various other appliances. In these devices, the wear time causes wear on the carbon brushes and will need to be replaced. It’s very simple. Just buy a pair of brushes for new ones, and you put it back in the engine yourself.